Association for Interdisciplinary Studies

Oakland University - Macomb County
44575 Garfield Road (Bldg. UC2, Suite 103)
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in Interdisciplinary
Welcome to Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies Online (formerly Issues in Integrative Studies Online). We have all 35 back volumes online in a pdf format, from the inaugural 1982 edition through the 2017 edition, the newest under the Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies title.

Print copies of most volumes are available for purchase.  An order form may be submitted to the AIS Office to request purchase. 

Online access to the most recent journal is reserved for AIS members. Please visit the membership page for information on how to join or renew. Current members may e-mail for access information.

Instructions for Authors
Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN 1081-4760)

Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies (formerly Issues in Integrative Studies) , the journal of the Association for Integrative Studies, seeks papers on the following topics:

1. Interdisciplinary theory and methodology.

2. The nature, means and problems of integrative research, especially on human experience.

3. Models of interdisciplinary/integrative curricular designs both undergraduate and graduate, supplemented by evaluative empirical studies.

4. Analyses of the relationships among social contexts, institutional arrangements and interdisciplinary programs of research and teaching.

5. Cross-campus surveys on the status of interdisciplinarity.

6. Conceptual and empirical attempts at distinguishing between disciplinary and interdisciplinary teaching, curricular models, and research.

7. Special pedagogical approaches for enhancing interdisciplinary/integrative comprehension, perspectives, knowledge, and utilization.

8. Substantial and critical reviews of literature published elsewhere on any of the above.

Gretchen Schulz of Oxford College of Emory University and P. Sven Arvidson of Seattle University, are the co-editors for the 2018 edition.

Submissions for the regular 2018 volume of Issues, due out in June or July, will be considered through the end of March (and beyond if space remains in the volume). Once the 2018 volume is full, submissions will be considered for the regular 2019 volume, due out in June or July of that year. The fall of 2018 will see the publication of a special volume of Issues honoring the work of William Newell. A special volume honoring the work of Julie Thompson Klein is scheduled for the fall of 2019. The content of both those volumes has already been determined.

Prospective authors should e-mail their manuscripts as attachments in Microsoft Word to Gretchen Schulz ( The manuscripts should be double-spaced, conform to current APA style and include an abstract. Photographs, illustrations and other graphics should be attached separately in a JPEG or TIFF format. To ensure anonymity during the refereeing process manuscripts should bear only the title as a means of identification. Contributors should send a cover letter giving title, author, affiliation, a brief biographical note to be included in the article, their full mailing address, phone number, and e-mail address.


Guidelines for Referees
Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN 1081-4760)

In judging articles, referees should consider the following aspects of a manuscript:

–Appropriateness for Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies in topic and quality
–Originality and timeliness
–Relevance to pertinent theories and bodies of knowledge
–Appropriateness and adequacy of the approach and execution of the study
–Soundness of conclusions and interpretations
–Adequacy of documentation
–Adequate attention paid to integrative methodology and framework

In dealing with institutional case studies, look for some attention to the larger, cross-institutional issues and problems suggested by any single example.

Should you suggest revisions, please be as explicit as possible and distinguish revisions you consider necessary from those you consider desirable but optional. Distinguish also between suggested changes that an editor can make and those requiring additional work by the author.

Please remember that authors have been assured of the privacy and security of their manuscripts. Professional ethics dictate that manuscripts not be used for purposes other than reviewing.

Finally, to facilitate production of Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies, please submit your review within one month of receiving a manuscript. Undue delay in assessing a manuscript hampers the evaluation and revision processes, as well as the journal publication. Submit your review to both editors at the following email addresses.

Gretchen Schulz
Co-editor of Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies
Oxford College of Emory University

P. Sven Arvidson
Co-editor of Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies
Seattle University


Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies
Online (Current and Past Issues)

Volume 35 (2017)

Table of Contents No. 35, 2017

Click on the titles to access articles in pdf format


Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies (formerly Issues in Integrative Studies): An Interdisciplinary Journal

An Annual Publication of the Association for Interdisciplinary Studies


Gretchen Schulz and P. Sven Arvidson, Co-editors

Editors’ Introduction


Jennifer R. Sasser

Our Research is Living, our Data is Life: Toward a Transdisciplinary Gerontology, 14-28

Wendell Kisner

The Medial Character of Interdisciplinarity: Thinking in the Middle Voice, 29-52

Matthew (TwoTrees) Haar Farris

Disciplines and Interdisciplinarity as Relations-in-difference: A Derridean Account of Disciplinary Knowledge Differences, 53-64

Rick Szostak

Stability, Instability, and Interdisciplinarity, 65-87

James Welch IV

All Too Human: Conflict and Common Ground in Interdisciplinary Research and Complex Problem Solving, 88-112

Special Section: Interdisciplinary Collaboration

Machiel Keestra

Introduction: Multi-Level Perspectives on Interdisciplinary Cognition and Team Collaboration - Challenges and Opportunities, 113-120

Machiel Keestra

Metacognition and Reflection by Interdisciplinary Experts: Insights from Cognitive Science and Philosophy, 121-169

Hans Deileman

Transdisciplinary Hermeneutics: A Symbiosis of Science, Arts, Philosophy, Reflective Practice, and Subjective Experience, 170-199

Whitney G. Lash-Marshall; Christopher T. Nomura; Kimberly Eck; Paul D. Hirsch

Facilitating Collaboration across Disciplinary and Sectoral Boundaries: Application of a Four-Step Strategic Intervention, 200-220

Richard L. Wallace; Susan G. Clark

Barriers to Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Studies: A Case of Alarming Trends in Faculty and Programmatic Wellbeing, 221-247

Tami Carmichael; Jennifer Dellner; Rick Szostak

Report from the Field: Interdisciplinary General Education, 248-258

Institutional Members

AIS Officers and Board Members

Volume 34 (2016)

Table of Contents No. 34, 2016

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Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies (formerly Issues in Integrative Studies): An Interdisciplinary Journal

An Annual Publication of the Association for Interdisciplinary Studies


Simeon Dreyfuss and Gretchen Schulz, Co-editors

Editors’ Introduction


William Condee

The Interdisciplinary Turn in the Arts and Humanities, 12-29

P. Sven Arvidson

Interdisciplinary Research and Phenomenology as Parallel Processes of Consciousness, 30-51

Robert Pecorella

From Michel Foucault to Mario Puzo: Using an Interdisciplinary Approach to Understand Urban Immigration Then and Now, 52-78

Ria van der Lecq

Self-Authorship Characteristics of Learners in the Context of an Interdisciplinary Curriculum. Evidence from Reflections, 79-108

Special Section: Interdisciplinarity In Latin America

Bianca Vienni Baptista

Introduction: Interdisciplinarity in Latin America–Building Dialogue Through Regionalism, 109-121

Marcel Bursztyn, María Beatriz Maury, and Gabriela Litre

Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies in Brazil: Lessons from Sustainability and Environmental Sciences, 122-142

Juan Carlos Villa-Soto and Norma Blazquez Graf

Interdisciplinary Education and Research in Mexico, 143-163

Rodrigo Arocena and Judith Sutz

Development Studies as an Interdisciplinary Field: Research, Teaching, and Institutional Building in Uruguay, 164-182

Cecilia Hidalgo

Interdisciplinarity and Knowledge Networking: Co-production of Climate Authoritative Knowledge in Southern South America, 183-199

Julie Thompson Klein

Conclusion: Expanding International Dialogue on Interdisciplinarity, 200-207

Further Conversation: A Forum For Interdisciplinarians, 208-216

Rick Szostak

What is Lost? (209-213)

Zachary Piso

Language Games of “Language Games” (213-216)

Institutional Members

AIS Officers and Board Members

Volume 33 (2015)
Table of Contents No. 33, 2015

Click on the titles to access articles in pdf format

Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies (formerly Issues in Integrative Studies): An Interdisciplinary Journal An Annual Publication of the Association for Interdisciplinary Studies


Simeon Dreyfuss and Gretchen Schulz, Co-editors
Editors' Introduction


Zachary Piso
Integration, Language, and Practice: Wittgenstein and Interdisciplinary Communication, 14-38
Yves Lenoir, Abdelkrim Hasni, and Alessandra Froelich
Curricular and Didactic Conceptions of Interdisciplinarity in the Field of Education. A Socio-Historical Perspective, 39-93
Rick Szostak
Extensional Definition of Interdisciplinarity, 94-116
P. Sven Arvidson

The Virtue of Reverence in Interdisciplinary Studies, 117-143

Abdelkrim Hasni, Yves Lenoir, and Alessandra Froelich
Mandated Interdisciplinarity in Secondary School: The Case of Science,Technology, and Mathematics Teachers in Quebec, 144-180
Phillip Ryan, Tyler Glodjo, Bethany Hobbs, Victoria Stargel, and Thad Williams
Navigating Complexities: An Integrative Approach to English Language Teacher Education, 181-209
Sierk A. Horn
The Front End of Interdisciplinarity: An Acculturation Framework for Explaining Varieties of Engagement, 210-240

Institutional Members - 2015

Volume 32 (2014)
Table of Contents No. 32, 2014

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Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies (formerly Issues in Integrative Studies): An Interdisciplinary Journal An Annual Publication of the Association for Interdisciplinary Studies


Pauline Gagnon and Gretchen Schulz, Co-editors
Editors' Introduction


Carolyn Haynes
Biting into the Yellow Pepper: The Development of the Interdisciplinary Learner
Marilyn Tayler
The Transformation from Multidisciplinarity to Interdisciplinarity: A Case Study of a Course Involving the Status of Arab Citizens of Israel
Tami Carmichael and Yvette LaPierre
Interdisciplinary Learning Works: The Results of a Comprehensive Assessment of Students and Student Learning Outcomes in an Integrative Learning Community
Phillip Ryan, Jill Sornsen Kurtz, Deanne Carter, and Danielle Pester

Interdisciplinarity, Qualitative Research, and the Complex Phenomenon: Toward an Integrative Approach to Intercultural Research

Marcia Bayne-Smith, Terry Mizrahi, Yossi Korazim-Korosy, and Martha Garcia
Professional Identity and Participation in Interprofessional Community Collaboration
Richard L. Wallace and Susan G. Clark
Convergent Evolution in the Interest of Integrative Problem Solving: Connecting the Policy Sciences and Interdisciplinary Studies
P. Sven Arvidson
Interdisciplinary Common Ground: Techniques and Attentional Processes
 Institutional Members - 2014

Volume 30 (2012)
Table of Contents No. 30, 2012

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Cover/Inside Cover


William H. Newell and Gretchen Schulz, Co-editors
Editors' Introduction


Frédéric Darbellay
The Circulation of Knowledge as an Interdisciplinary Process: Travelling Concepts, Analogies, and Metaphor

William Abbott and Kathryn Nantz

Building Students' Integrative Thinking Capacities: A Case Study in Economics and History

Jeannie Brown Leonard

Integrative Learning: A Grounded Theory

Benjamin Brooks and Evan Widders

Interdisciplinary Studies and the Real World: A Practical Rationale for and Guide to Postgraduation Evaluation and Assessment

James Welch IV

Interdisciplinary Studies and the Question of Being

Ken Fuchsman

Interdisciplines and Interdisciplinarity: Political Psychology and Psychohistory Compared
Institutional Members—2012

Volume 29 (2011)
Table of Contents No. 29, 2011

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Cover/Inside Cover


Rick Szostak and Allen Repko, Co-editors
Editors' Introduction


James Welch IV

The Emergence of Interdisciplinarity From Epistemological Thought

Jennifer Manthei and Jonathan Isler

Co-Teaching Social Research Methods in a Joint Sociology/Anthropology Department

Simeon Dreyfuss

Something Essential about Interdisciplinary Thinking

Susan K. Gardner

'A Jack of All Trades and a Master of Some of Them': Successful Students in Interdisciplinary PhD Programs

Barbara Cosens, Fritz Fiedler, Jan Boll, Lorie Higgins, Gary Johnson, Brian Kennedy, Eva Strand, Patrick Wilson, and Maureen Laflin

Interdisciplinary Methods in Water Resources

 Institutional Members—2011

Volume 28 (2010)
Special No. 28, 2010
Interdisciplinarity in Schools:
A Comparative View of National Perspectives

Funded in part by the Canada Research Chair in Educative Intervention
Table of Contents

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Cover/Inside Cover


Guest Editors
Yves Lenoir, University of Sherbrooke
Julie Thompson Klein, Wayne State University
Editors' Introduction


Veronica Boix Mansilla & Yves Lenoir

Interdisciplinarity in U.S. Schools: Past, Present, and Future

Janette Long, Wendy Moran, & Joanne Harris

Following the Yellow Brick Road: Interdisciplinary Practices in the Land of Oz

Kurt Clausen & Susan Drake

Interdisciplinary Practices in Ontario: Past, Present, and Future

Jose Gregorio Rodriguez & Carlos Minana Blasco

Interdisciplinary and Research on Local Issues in Schools: Policies and Experiences from Colombia

Isidoro Segovia, Jose Luis Lupianez, Martta Molina, et al.

The Conception and Role of Interdisciplinarity in the Spanish Education System

Gilles Baillat & Daniel Niclot

In Search of Interdisciplinarity in Schools in France: From Curriculum to Practice

Marie-Helene Bouillier-Oudot

The Choice of Interdisciplinarity in French Agricultural Education

Yves Lenoir & Abelkrim Hasni

Interdisciplinarity in Quebec Schools: 40 Years of Problematic Implementation

Gianni Ghisla, Luca Bausch, & Lorenzo Bonoli

Interdisciplinarity in Swiss Schools: A Difficult Step into the Future
 Institutional Members—2010

Volume 27 (2009)
Table of Contents No. 27, 2009

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Cover/Inside Cover


Stuart Henry, Editor
Editor's Introduction


Angus McMurtry

Knowers and Phenomena: Two Different Approaches to Interdisciplinarity and Interprofessionalism

Brian McCormack

The Problem with Problem Solving

James Welch IV

Interdisciplinarity and the History of Western Epistemology

Ken Fuchsman

Rethinking Integration in Interdisciplinary Studies

Stephanie R. deLusé

A Critical Review of Harvard's Project Zero

Ken Badley

Resisting Curriculum Integration: Do Good Fences Make Good Neighbors?
 Institutional Members—2009

Volume 26 (2008)
Table of Contents No. 26, 2008

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Cover/Inside Cover


Rick Szostak and Allen Repko, Co-editors
Editors' Introduction


William H. Newell

The Intertwined History of Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Education and the Association for Integrative Studies: An Insider's View


Raymond C. Miller

Comments on Interdisciplinarity, Higher Education and Public Policy on the 30th Anniversary of the Association for Integrative Studies. Delivered in Springfield, Illinois, October 24, 2008.


Leah Greden Mathews and Andrew Jones

Using Systems Thinking to Improve Interdisciplinary Learning Outcomes: Reflections on a Pilot Study in Land Economics

David L. Major

Collaboration: How Japanese Poetry Can Help Tech Writers

Ian Watson

Developing an Integrated Arts and Media Studies Curriculum: One Model

 Institutional Members—2008

Volume 25 (2007)
Table of Contents No. 25, 2007

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Cover/Inside Cover


Francine Navakas and Joan Fiscella, Co-Editors
Editors' Introduction



Allen F. Repko

Integrating Interdisciplinarity: How the Theories of Common Ground and Cognitive Interdisciplinarity Are Informing the Debate on Interdisciplinary Integration

Rick Szostak

Modernism, Postmodernism, and Interdisciplinarity

William H. Newell

Distinctive Challenges of Library-based Interdisciplinary Research and Writing: A Guide

Jean Petrolle

Profane Illumination, Genre, and the Integrative Stud of Literature

James Welch IV

The Role of Intuition in Interdisciplinary Insight


Sarah "Amira" De la Garza

The Integrated Self Crosses Borders Daily: Inviting the Mystical Realism of the Integrated Scholar

 Institutional Members—2007

Volume 23 (2005)
Table of Contents No. 23, 2005

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies

Cover/Inside Cover


Francine Navakas and Joan Fiscella, Co-Editors
Editors' Introduction


Stuart Henry

Disciplinary Hegemony Meets Interdisciplinary Ascendancy: Can Interdisciplinary/Integrative Studies Survive, and, If So, How?

Tami S. Carmichael,
Steven Finney,
and Mark Magness

An International Learning Community: Cultural Studies and Study Abroad in an Integrated Studies Program

Brian McCormack

Making Interdisciplinarity Work Through Translation and Analogical Thinking

Donald N. Mager

Textual Revision, Stalinist Revisionism, and the Obligations of Memory: Situating Anna Akhmatova's Poem Without a Hero

 Keynote for Joint AIS/AGLS Conference, October 7, 2005
Randy Bass

Building a Culture of Learning in the 21st Century: Confronting Some Assumptions Preventing Us from Realizing the Promise of the Learning Paradigm

 Institutional Members—2005

Volume 22 (2004)
Table of Contents, No. 22, 2004

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 2004, Volume 22
 Francine Navakas and Joan Fiscella, Co-Editors
 Editors' Introduction

Henrik Bruun
and Aino Toppinen

Knowledge in Science and Innovation: A Review of Three Discourses on the Institutional and Cognitive Foundations of Knowledge Production
Marcia Bundy SeaburyScholarship About Interdisciplinarity: Some Possibilities and Guidelines
Marc SpoonerGenerating Integration and Complex Understanding: Exploring the Use of Creative Thinking Tools within Interdisciplinary Studies

Jeremy Smith
and William H. Newell

An Interdisciplinary Approach to Web Design
 Conference Keynote, October 17, 2004
Elizabeth Kamarck MinnichReflections on the Wellsprings of Interdisciplinary Studies and Transformative Education

Volume 21 (2003)
Table of Contents, 25th Anniversary Issue, No. 21, 2003

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Special Editors Roslyn Abt Schindler and Stuart Henry

Editor's Comments

Carol Geary Schneider

Liberal Education and Integrative Learning

William H. Newell, James Hall, Steven Hutkins,
Daniel Larner, Eric McGuckin, Karen Oates

Apollo Meets Dionysius: Interdisciplinarity in Long-Standing Interdisciplinary Programs


Paul Burger
and Rainer Kamber

Cognitive Integration in Transdisciplinary Science: Knowledge as a Key Notion

Lisa Maruca

Plagiarism and its (Disciplinary) Discontents: Towards and Interdisciplinary Theory and Pedagogy

Tanya Augsburg

Becoming Interdisciplinary: The Student Portfolio in the Bachelor of Interdisciplinary Studies Program at Arizona State University


Christopher R. Wolfe
and Carolyn Haynes

Interdisciplinary Writing Assessment Profiles

James Welch IV

Future Directions for Interdisciplinary Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Delphi Study

Volume 20 (2002)
Table of Contents No. 20, 2002

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Jay Wentworth, Editor, and David Sebberson, Associate Editor

Editors' Comments


Stacey M. Floyd-Thomas,
Laura Gillman,
Katherine R. Allen

Interdisciplinarity as Self and Subject: Metaphor and Transformation

Svetlana Nikitina

"Navigating the Disciplinary Fault Lines" in Science and in the Classroom: Undergraduate Neuroscience Classroom in Mind, Brain and Behavior at Harvard

Michael R. McDonald and S. Gregory Tolley

Assessment, Outcomes, and Forays in Interdisciplinary Curriculum Development

Gordon F. Vars

Educational Connoisseurship, Criticism, and the Assessment of Integrative Studies

Donald E. Stowe
and Douglas J. Eder

Interdisciplinary Program Assessment

Rick Szostak

How to Do Interdisciplinarity: Integrating the Debate

J. Linn Mackey

Rules Are Not the Way to Do Interdisciplinarity: A Response to Szostak

Rick Szostak

Intuition and Interdisciplinarity: A Reply to Mackey


Julie Thompson Klein
and William H. Newell

Strategies for Using Interdisciplinary Resources Across K-16

 Response to Conference Keynote
Raymond C. Miller

Response to the Keynote Address by Dr. Allen Hammond, "Globalization That Works for Everyone: What Would It Look Like?"
Delivered at the Annual Conference of the Association for Integrative Studies, Roanoke, Virginia, October 6, 2001.

Volume 19 (2001)
Table of Contents, No. 19, 2001

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Jay Wentworth, Editor, and David Sebberson, Associate Editor

Editor's Comments
William H. Newell

A Theory of Interdisciplinary Studies

 Responses to Newell
Stanley Bailis

Contending with Complexity: A Response to William H. Newell's "A Theory of Interdisciplinary Studies"

Julie Thompson Klein

Interdisciplinarity and the Prospect of Complexity: The Tests of Theory

J. Linn Mackey

Another Approach to Interdisciplinary Studies

Richard Carp

Integrative Praxes: Learning from Multiple Knowledge Formations

Jack Meek

The Practice of Interdisciplinarity: Complex Conditions and the Potential of Interdisciplinary Theory

William H. Newell

Reply to the Respondents to "A Theory of Interdisciplinary Studies"

Steve Payne

Applying More Integrative Potentials for IDS Program Planning and Development

Rick Szostak

Putting Social Structure in Its Place Schematically


Conference Keynote, October 6, 2000
Dr. Linda E. Olds

The Columbia Basin as a Metaphor for an Interdisciplinary Approach


Volume 18 (2000)
Table of Contents, No. 18, 2000

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 Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies

Tribute to Stanley Bailis,
Editor of Issues in Integrative Studies (1988-1999)

Editor's Comments (page iv)



 Euthanasia Symposium
Leslie E. Gerber, Guest Editor, Euthanasia Symposium

From Mengele to Kervorkian? The Significance of Nazi Euthanasia for the Contemporary Right-to-Die Debate

Scott Denham

Stories of Euthanasia in Germany

Walter Wright

Peter Singer and the Lessons of the German Euthanasia Program

Bryan Hillard

The Moral and Legal Status of Physician-Assisted Death: Quality of Life and the Patient-Physician Relationship

Paul Lewis

The Logic of Christian Theology and the “Right to Die”

Leslie Gerber

After/words: Rhetorics, Narrativity, and Complicit German Christians

Yves Lenoir, François Larose, and Yvon Geoffroy

Interdisciplinary Practices in Primary Education in Quebec: Results from Ten Years of Research

Rick Szostak

Toward a Unified Human Science

Volume 17 (1999)
Table of Contents, No. 17, 1999

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Stanley Bailis, Editor; Jay Wentworth, Associate Editor

Guy V. Beckwith

The Lure of Novelty and the Disappearance of the Public Intellectual

John N. Warfield and Rosamond Warfield

A Role for Formalisms in Integrative Studies

Richard M. Carp

Intermediation: Arts' Contribution to General Integrative Theory

Marcia Bundy Seabury

Venturing Into Interdisciplinary Tasks

Rudolf Kötter
and Philipp W. Balsiger

Interdisciplinarity and Transdisciplinarity: A Constant Challenge to the Sciences

 Institutional Members-1999


Volume 16 (1998)
Table of Contents, No. 16, 1998

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Stanley Bailis, Editor; James A. Bell, Guest Editor


James A. Bell

Introduction: Transformative Encounters With Integrative Ethics

Martin Schönfeld

How Much Is Enough? The Limits of Interdisciplinary Openness in Environmental Ethics

Andrew Stuart Bergerson

Narrating Enlightenment: Oral History and Civil Society after Hitler

Debora Wood

Art and Transformation

Linda Handelman

Dewey Meets the Buddha

James A. Bell

Overcoming Dogma in Epistemology

Volume 15 (1997)
Table of Contents, No. 15, 1997

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 Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Stanley Bailis, Edittor; Stephen Gottlieb, Associate Editor
Robert Weiner

Western and Contemporary Global Conceptions of Creativity in Relief Against Approaches from So-called 'Traditional Cultures'

Andrew Bergerson

Integrating in the Accusative: The Daily Papers of Interwar Hildesheim

Yves Lenoir

Some Interdisciplinary Instructional Models Used in Primary Grades in Quebec

Don Rosenblum

In the Absence of a Paradigm: The Construction of Interdisciplinary Research

Louise Rehling and Lee Hollaar

Co-teaching Engineering and Writing: Learning about Programming, Teamwork, and Communication

Volume 14 (1996)
Table of Contents, No. 14, 1996

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 Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Stanley Bailis, Editor; William H. Newell, Guest Editor
William H. Newell

Guest Editor's Introduction

Guy V. Beckwith

The Generalist and the Disciplines: The Case of Lewis Mumford

Carolyn Haynes

Interdiscplinary Writing and the Undergraduate Experience: A Four-Year Writing Plan Proposal

Nancy McCampbell Grace

An Exploration of the Interdisciplinary Character of Women's Studies

Stanley Bailis

The Culture of Babel: Interdisciplinarity as Adaptation in Multicultureland

Volume 12 (1994)
Table of Contents, No. 12, 1994

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies
Stanley Bailis, Editor; Stephen Gottlieb, Associate Editor
Julie Thompson Klein, Wayne State University, Guest Editor

Interdisciplinarity: European Perspectives

Julie Thompson Klein
Guest Editor

Introduction: European Perspectives


Leo Apostel and
Jaak Vanlandschoot

Interdisciplinarity: The Construction of Worldviews and the Dissemination of Scientific Results

Tony Becher

Esperantists in a Tower of Babel

Wilhelm Vosskamp

Crossing of Boundaries: Interdisciplinarity as an Opportunity for Universities in the 1990s?
(Translated by Roslyn Abt Schindler)

Ursula Hubenthal

Interdisciplinary Thought
(Translated by Denise Doyle)

Jurgen Schulert
and Andrea Frank

Interdisciplinary Studies as Change of Perspective
(Translated by Maria Galffey-Measel)

Dirk van Dusseldorp
and Seerp Wigboldus

Interdisciplinary Research for Integrated Rural Development in Developing Countries: the Role of Social Sciences

European Readings:
Roslyn Abt Schindler

Key Issues in Recent German Interdisciplinary Scholarship

S.N. Smirnov

The Main Forms of Interdisciplinary Development of Modern Science

Keynote Address:
Jerry G. Gaff

Overcoming Barriers: Interdisciplinary Studies in Disciplinary Institutions

Volume 11 (1993)
Table of Contents, No. 11, 1993

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies

Stanley Bailis, Editor; Stephen Gottlieb & Julie Thompson Klein, Associate Editors
Leslie E. Gerber, Appalachian State University, Guest Editor


Special Number: Narrative Theory

Leslie E. Gerber

Introduction to Special Number: Narrative Theory

L. Gregory Jones

Rhetoric, Narrative, and the Rhetoric of Narratives: Exploring the Turns to Narrative in Recent thought and Discourses

James A. Winders

"Narratime": Postmodern Temporality and Narrative

J. Linn Mackey

Narrative and the Physical Sciences

Gregory G. Reck

Narrative and Social Science: Reclaiming the Existential

Howard L. Nixon II

Narrative and Social Science: A Response to Gregory Reck

L. Gregory Jones

The Virtues of Taking Time, Taking Time for the Virtues

Mary E. Clark

The Academy and Social Change: What are the Rules?

Volume 10 (1992)
Table of Contents, No. 10, 1992

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies

Stanley Bailis, Editor; Stephen Gottlieb & Julie Thompson Klein, Associate Editors
Joan Fiscella, University of Illinois at Chicago Library, Guest Editor

Interdisciplinarity and Information: Issues of Access
Joan B. Fiscella


Susan E. Searing

How Libraries Cope with Interdisciplinarity: The Case of Women's Studies

Taylor Hubbard

The Values Added in Information Processing, 27-46
(electronic version not yet available)

Rutherford W. Witthus

The Archival Information System as a Model for Retrieval of Interdisciplinary Materials

Charles E. Beck

Toward a Taxonomy of an Interdisciplinary Area: The Case of Technical Communication

Richard M. Carp

Creating an Image Bank for Teaching World Religion: Challenging and Reifying Structures of Knowledge

David Sebberson

Arguing for the Rainforest: High-Tech Topoi and the Value(s) of a Databas

Keynote address:
N. Katherine Hayles

The Materiality of Informatics
(Delivered at the AIS Annual Conference, St. Paul, MN, 1991)

Volume 9 (1991)
Table of Contents, No. 9, 1991

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies

Stanley Bailis, Editor; Stephen Gottlieb & Julie Thompson Klein, Associate Editors

Charles C. Fischer

On Pushing Back the Boundaries of Economics: The Case of Business Ethics

Philip Lewin

Honoring the World-Soul, 23-33

Donna R. Vocate

Consciousness and Linguistic Competency: Making Interdisciplinary Choices

Linda L. Baer, Leslie C. Duly and Ivan L. Weir

Higher Education Leadership: Where and Who are the Interdisciplinarians? An Introductory Story, 49-66

Keynote addresses:
H. S. Broudy

Integration without Confusion, 67-74 (Delivered at the Annual Conference, Sonoma State University, 1989)

Kenneth E. Boulding

What Do We Know About Knowledge?, 75-89 (Delivered at the Annual Conference, St. Anselm College, 1990)

Stan Bailis

Readings: An Invitation, 90

Ronnie Serr

The End-of-History vs. All- is-History, 91-96

Reprint and Response
Richard Turner

Introduction, 97-98

Stanley Fish

Being Interdisciplinary is So Very Hard to Do, 99-112

Richard C. Turner

Trading Tunes with Stanley Fish: Grand Unification Theories and the Practice of Literature and Science, 113-125

Volume 8 (1990)
Table of Contents, No. 8, 1990
Special Number: Interdisciplinary Resources

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Special Number: Interdisciplinary Resources
Edited by William G. Doty, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Julie Thompson Klein, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan

Publication of Special Number supported by the Association of American Colleges, FIPSE, and the Ford Foundation

Stan Bailis

Preface, 1-2

William G. Doty


American Association of Colleges:

Statement on Society for Values in Higher Education Task Force Report on Interdisciplinary Studies, 7, and
SVHE Task Force Report on Interdisciplinary Studies, 9-33

Julie Thompson Klein

Interdisciplinary Resources: A Bibliographical Reflection, 35-67

William H. Newell

Interdisciplinary Curriculum Development, 69-86

Beth A. Casey

The Administration of Interdisciplinary Programs: Creating Climates for Change, 87-110

Nelson E. Bingham

Integrating Interdisciplinary Organizations: A Preliminary Directory for Networking, 111-131

Stan Bailis

Readings: An Invitation, 132

Barbara Hursh, Paul Haas, Michael Moore

An Interdisciplinary Model to Implement General Education, 133-150

Volume 7 (1989)
Table of Contents, No. 7, 1989

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies

Stanley Bailis, Editor; Stephen Gottlieb & Julie Thompson Klein, Associate Editors

Keynote Address AIS annual meeting, Arlington, Texas, 1988:
Richard Harvey Brown

Textuality, Social Science and Society, 1-19

Timothy Perper

The Loss of Innovation: Peer Review in Multi- and Interdisciplinary Research, 21-56

Selma Kraft

Interdisciplinarity and the Canon of Art History, 57-71

Joan B. Fiscella

Access to Interdisciplinary Information: Setting the Problem, 73-92

Stan Bailis

Readings: An Invitation, 93

Trace Jordon

William Bechtel, Integrating Scientific Disciplines, 95-104

Volume 6 (1988)
Table of Contents, No. 6, 1988

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Issues in Integrative Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies

Stanley Bailis, Editor; Julie Thompson Klein and Raymond Miller, Associate Editors

Theodore Hershberg

The Fragmentation of Knowledge and Practice: University, Private Sector and Public Sector Perspectives, 1-20
(Delivered at Annual Conference, Pennsylvania State University, 1987
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Charles C. Fischer

On the Need for Integrating Sex Discrimination Theory on the Basis of Causal Variables, 21-50

Trace Jordan

Organisms and the Mysterious X: Interdisciplinary Innovation in Experimental Biology, 51-81

Robert Keesey

Transformations in Disciplinary Knowledge and Their Implications for Reforming the Undergraduate Curriculum, 82-125

David Myers

An Argument for the Study of Play, 126-138

Roberta Frank

`Interdisciplinary': The First Half Century, 139-151

Forrest Armstrong

Reflections on the Nature of Interdisciplinarity: A Reply to Benson, his Critics and Nicholson, 152-166

Thomas Benson

Post-Modernism and the Theory of Interdisciplinary Studies: A Reply to Nicholson, 167-174

Volume 5 (1987)
Table of Contents, No. 5, 1987

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Issues in Integrative Studies
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies

Julie Thompson Klein, Manuscripts Editor; Stanley Bailis, Jury Editor; Raymond C. Miller, Production Editor

Permission for publishing the Frost poem, "A Dust of Snow," granted by the Henry Holt Publishing Company..

James Boyd White

Intellectual Integration, 1-18

Carol Nicholson

Postmodernism and the Present State of Integrative Studies: A Reply to Benson and his Critics, 19-34

William Newell

Response to Nicholson: The Case for Agreement about Interdisciplinarity, 35-39

Arnold Binder

Criminology: Discipline or Interdiscipline, 41-67

Reading the Bible: An Interdisciplinary Experience
Christopher Becker

An Introductory Comment: Integration, Cultural and Academic, 69-75

Mary C. Savage

Controversy and Canon in the Undergraduate Humanities Curriculum: The Example of Biblical Studies, 77-90

Stephen Gottlieb

Reading the Bible, Writing the Self: George Herbert's The Temple, 91-103

Christopher Becker

Origen: Reading as Discipline and as Sacrament, 105-128

Volume 4 (1986)
Table of Contents, No. 4, 1986

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Issues in Integrative Studies
An Annual Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies

Raymond C. Miller and Julie Thompson Klein, Co-Editors

Julie Thompson Klein

Preface, ii-iii

Joseph J. Kockelmans

Interdisciplinarity and the University: The Dream and the Reality, 1-16

Wilhelm Vosskamp

From Specialization to the Dialogue Between the Disciplines, 17-36

Frederick S. Weaver

Inquiry, Interdisciplinary Study, and Minor Programs of Study, 37-55

Thomas H. Murray

Confessions of an Unconscious Interdisciplinarian, 57-69

Beth A. Casey

The Quiet Revolution: The Transformation and Reintegration of the Humanities, 71-92

Un-chol Shin

The Structure of Interdisciplinary Knowledge: A Polanyian View, 93-104

Volume 2 (1983)
Table of Contents, No. 2, 1983

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Issues in Integrative Studies
An Occasional Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies

Raymond C. Miller, Editor

William H. Newell

The Case for Interdisciplinary Studies: Response to Professor Benson's Five Arguments, 1-19

Jerry L. Petr

The Case For/Against Interdisciplinary Studies: A Commentary on the Debate, 20-24

Raymond C. Miller

What Do You Say to a Devil's Advocate?, 25-30

Thomas L. Benson

The Devil's Due: Some Reflections on the Responses, 31-34

Julie Thompson Klein

The Dialectic and Rhetoric of Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity, 35-74

Mark E. Blum

Dialogue with Autobiography: Integrating Through the Study of Personality, 75-92

Francis M. Betts, III

A Qualitative Model of the Integrative Learning Process, 93-122

Volume 1 (1982)
Table of Contents, No. 1, 1982

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Issues in Integrative Studies
An Occasional Publication of the Association for Integrative Studies

Raymond C. Miller, Editor

Raymond C. Miller

Varieties of Interdisciplinary Approaches in the Social Sciences

Thomas L. Benson

Five Arguments Against Interdisciplinary Studies

Robert W. Winquist

What are Transdisciplinary Principles?

Jerry C. Petr

Can Progress Towards Interdisciplinary Education be Built on a Disciplinary Base?

Integrative Pathways

Our Staff

  James Welch IV
"Emerging Scholars Forum" 
Associate Professor of History
Chair, Division of Social Sciences and Business
University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma
Chickasha, OK 73018


Simeon Dreyfuss
Independent Interdisciplinary Scholar
(Former Chair Interdisciplinary Studies and Director Liberal Arts Core, Marylhurst University)
Oceanside, OR USA

Contributing editors

Joan Fiscella
Associate Professor Emerita
University of Illinois at Chicago Library
"Bibliographic Essay"

Lorraine Marshall
Murdoch University
90 South Street
Murdoch, Western Australia, 6150
"International Perspectives"

Francine Navakas
North Central College
30 N. Brainard, Naperville, IL 60540
"Focus on Innovation"

Gretchen Schulz
Oxford College of Emory University
100 Hamill Street, Oxford, GA 30054

Production editor

J.C. Casey

What You Will Find in Integrative Pathways
  • AIS news, including updates on AIS conferences, decisions of the AIS Board of Directors, and membership announcements.
  • Review-essays of recently published books or special sections of academic journals, related to interdisciplinary studies.
  • Columns on Integrative Learning, SoITL (Scholarship of Interdisciplinary Teaching and Learning), International Perspectives, and Emerging Scholars Forum.
  • Bibliographic essays about newly published works in interdisciplinary studies.
  • Profiles of members and other interdisciplinary educators and scholars.
  • Observations on interdisciplinary programs, teaching, and research.
  • Conference announcements on IDS-related events scheduled by other organizations and institutions.
  • Job listings of open positions in interdisciplinary studies.

How to Submit Material
Integrative Pathways is the quarterly newsletter of the Association for Interdisciplinary Studies, with editions published in January, April, July, October. We welcome submissions to the newsletter. Here are some guidelines on how to submit material.
  • Reviews: Authors who wish to submit their proposals for reviews of recent books, special editions of academic journals, and online publications related to interdisciplinary studies and integrative learning should e-mail queries to the editor. The maximum length of a review is 2,500 words. Please follow the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition, in preparing your manuscript.
  • Articles: Authors may also propose articles about interdisciplinary programs, teaching, or research by contacting the editor. The maximum length for an article is 2,000 words. Please follow the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition, in preparing your manuscript.
  • Columns: Authors who wish to suggest or submit material for a column should contact the contributing editor for that column.
  • Announcements: We publish announcements about upcoming conferences, job openings, and other news of interest related to interdisciplinary studies, when space permits. Announcements should be a maximum of 250 words and may be edited for publication.
  • Deadlines: Authors should submit material for the edition of anticipated publication. The deadlines are:
    • January edition: November 20
    • April edition: February 20
    • July edition: May 20
    • October edition: August 20
The editor may delay publication of a submission, when necessary.

Past Issues of Newsletter
Copies of most back issues of the quarterly AIS Newsletter are available to purchase at the cost of $2 per copy (plus postage & handling). To inquire about the availability of a particular issue, contact the AIS Office, or submit a completed order form.

Volume 40, Issue 2
Volume 40, Issue 1
October 2017 Volume 39, Issue 4
August 2017 Volume 39, Issue 3
May 2017 Volume 39, Issue 2
January 2017 Volume 39, Issue 1
September 2016 Volume 38, Issue 3
June 2016 Volume 38, Issue 2
March 2016 Volume 38, Issue 1
December 2015 Volume 37, Issue 4
October 2015 Volume 37, Issue 3
May 2015 Volume 37, Issue 2
March 2015 Volume 37, Issue 1               
December 2014 Volume 36,  Issue 4                   
October 2014 Volume 36,  Issue 3                   
May 2014 Volume 36,  Issue 2                   
March 2014 Volume 36, Issue 1
December 2013 Volume 35, Issue 4
October 2013 Volume 35, Issue 3
May 2013 Volume 35, Issue 2
March 2013 Volume 35, Issue 1
December 2012 Volume 34, Issue 4
October 2012 Volume 34, Issue 3
May 2012 Volume 34, Issue 2
March 2012 Volume 34, Issue 1
December 2011 Volume 33, Issue 4
October 2011 Volume 33, Issue 3
May 2011 Volume 33, Issue 2
March 2011 Volume 33, Issue 1
December 2010 Volume 32, Issue 4
October 2010 Volume 32, Issue 3
May 2010 Volume 32, Issue 2
March 2010 Volume 32, Issue 1
December 2009 Volume 31, Issue 4
October 2009 Volume 31, Issue 3
May 2009 Volume 31, Issue 2
March 2009 Volume 31, Issue 1
December 2008 Volume 30, Issue 4
October 2008 Volume 30, Issue 3
May 2008 Volume 30, Issue 2
March 2008 Volume 30, Issue 1
December 2007 Volume 29, Issue 4
October 2007 Volume 29, Issue 3
May 2007 Volume 29, Issue 2
March 2007 Volume 29, Issue 1
December 2006 Volume 28, Issue 4
October 2006 Volume 28, Issue 3
May 2006 Volume 28, Issue 2
March 2006 Volume 28, Issue 1
December 2005 Volume 27, Issue 4
October 2005 Volume 27, Issue 3
May 2005 Volume 27, Issue 2
March 2005 Volume 27, Issue 1


Assessing Interdisciplinary Programs

AIS Interdisciplinary General Education Guidelines

The Task

This report has been prepared by a task force of the Association for Integrative Studies, and has been endorsed by the Board of Directors of the Association (February 13, 2000). Members of the task force, listed alphabetically, are Joan Fiscella (chair), Cheryl Jacobsen, Julie Thompson Klein, and Marcia Seabury. Michael Field serves as liaison to the AIS assessment taskforce.* With consultation from Don Stowe, chair of the AIS task force on assessment, the Guidelines task force has revised the document to include a section on assessment. The AIS Board of Directors endorsed the revision October 3, 2002.

The Association for Integrative Studies, a professional organization for educators in interdisciplinary education and scholarship, commissioned the task force on interdisciplinary general education accreditation guidelines in response to a request from the Association of American Colleges & Universities (AAC&U). There is no authorized accrediting body for interdisciplinary education, and this organization is not in a position to act as one by overseeing site visits by teams. Our task was to develop appropriate criteria of accreditation for interdisciplinary general education. The criteria we offer are advisory. Nonetheless, the recommendations of the task force may be taken as state-of-the-art counsel that can be published and endorsed by other professional groups such as AAC&U.

The need for clear criteria of interdisciplinary accreditation looms larger today, as interdisciplinarity has become a major dimension in recent general education reforms. Although individual courses are included in our compass, the emphasis is on programs. By "program," we mean at least two courses. By "interdisciplinary," we mean involvement of more than one disciplinary perspective and explicit attention to the question of integration. Defining accreditation criteria is one part of a multi-pronged approach that will complement other future documents regarding site visits and assessment methods.

The Context

The past two decades have been a time of robust reform in general education. In the literature on general education, the most consistently cited failure is lack of coherence. Coherence, James Ratcliff (1997) explains, allows for many kinds of connectedness, including the role of disciplinary knowledge, languages, and methodologies across liberal arts and sciences. Coherence also connotes integration of content and skills, connection-making across general education and the major, the capacity for higher order skills of integration and synthesis, and the widespread blurring of disciplinary boundaries. Three monographs in a new series on The Academy in Transition, sponsored by the Association of American Colleges and Universities, establish the context of current reforms.

In General Education: The Changing Agenda (1999), Jerry Gaff identified thirteen major trends. Renewed emphasis is being placed on liberal arts and science subject matter, extending into professional and pre-professional programs. Greater attention is being paid to fundamental skills, including computing. Core programs are being strengthened and standards raised. Interest in interdisciplinary learning and integration of knowledge is extensive. The study of diversity in the U.S. is drawing on new scholarship on cultural identities. Global studies programs have expanded, and international themes are being incorporated across the curriculum. The moral and ethical dimensions of every field of study are being explored. The first and senior years are being targeted as crucial points in undergraduate experience. General education is being extended into advanced study and across all four years of college. There is heightened interest in active, experiential, technological and collaborative methods of learning. New approaches are being taken to assess learning outcomes, with feedback channeled into improving courses and programs. Further administrative support is being given to faculty to collaborate in curriculum planning, course development, and teaching of core courses.

Interdisciplinarity is not simply one more item on this list. It intersects with every trend that Gaff identified. Integration, synthesis, and cohesion of learning, Gaff exhorts, are hallmarks of the purpose of general education. The teaching of liberal arts and science subject matter is being updated to include new interdisciplinary research. Skills are being infused into the teaching of content, and synthesis is being targeted as a primary skill. The teaching of diversity and international themes, as well as moral and ethical issues, draws on new scholarship in interdisciplinary fields. First-year seminars often feature integrative study of themes and problems, not the disciplines per se. Senior capstone seminars afford opportunities to reflect on the connections of both majors and general education to other disciplines and to the "real world." Four-year programs often move from a multidisciplinary overview to a higher-level synthesis. Collaborative learning and other innovative pedagogies encourage integration and connection making. Assessment is becoming more attentive to interdisciplinary outcomes and new interdisciplinary understandings of the learning process. And, the needs of interdisciplinary teaching are being recognized in faculty development programs.

Interdisciplinarity has become more important in the undergraduate curriculum, because the need for integration is pervasive. "The entire ethos of the contemporary world," Carol Geary Schneider and Robert Schoenberg wrote in another monograph in the series, Contemporary Understandings of General Education (1998), "calls for the capacity to cross boundaries, explore connections, move in uncharted directions." American higher education is in a period of transformative change. Integration of learning is central to this change, not only in general education but also in the rapid growth of interdisciplinary majors and minors. Multidisciplinary and integrative learning create awareness of relationships, tensions, and complementarities among ideas and epistemologies. They generate links among previously unconnected issues, approaches, sources of knowledge, and contexts of practice. Increasing interdisciplinarity of both student interests and faculty behaviors underscores the importance of preparing students, in Schneider and Schoenberg's words, "to navigate a kaleidoscopically complex world."

In a third monograph in the series, Mapping Interdisciplinary Studies (1999), Julie Thompson Klein identified seven major trends in integrative approaches to general education today: replacing distribution models with interdisciplinary cores; insuring a broad overview of knowledge; clustering and linking courses; building learning communities; including diversity and globalism; incorporating knowledge from interdisciplinary fields; introducing innovative pedagogies. According to theorists Klein and William Newell, among others, interdisciplinary approaches in general education are the appropriate curricular response to the explosion of knowledge and the evolution of disciplinary boundaries implicit in the general education trends noted by Klein. Interdisciplinary approaches in general education also hold great promise for developing intellectual skills necessary to increasingly complex modes of analysis and problem solving precisely because they can achieve a more holistic perspective through the emphasis on connection and integration.

The Practice of Interdisciplinary General Education
Of the 410 interdisciplinary undergraduate programs described in Edwards (1996), 96 -- approximately 23% -- are identified as general education. Davis (1995) identifies approximately 30% of his list of representative team-taught interdisciplinary courses as general education. Interdisciplinary general education programs take several forms and occur at several places in the curriculum. They frequently appear as "core courses," "integrated studies" or "interdisciplinary studies." They also may be sequenced with introductory, mid-career, and concluding activities in general education. New reforms in general education reflect variations in student learning and clear assessment of corresponding curricular goals. Students also benefit from the challenge of synthesizing learning through essays and journal keeping, capstone and cornerstone courses, and integrative experience in cooperative and service learning. Whether as "cornerstone" or first-year seminar, as part of a four-year core, or as capstones or senior seminar, interdisciplinary general education approaches share several common features. They frequently are organized around themes, problems or issues, cluster disciplines in knowledge-domain offerings [such as humanities, social sciences, natural or life sciences], and are team-designed and/or team-taught with faculty from several disciplines participating.

Task Force Recommendations
The purpose of the recommendations is to encourage interdisciplinary programs and give guidelines for conditions that support these programs. The recommendations can also be used as criteria for evaluating existing programs in a review process. In fact, there are many creative ways of implementing interdisciplinary general education programs, and it is important to develop them within the context of each institution's mission and resources. We address some general education issues that are known to be effective, and we note them because they particularly support interdisciplinary general education. Some features of strong general education may be lacking in this report, but this should not be read as a lack of support for them. Rather it is a by-product of our focus on interdisciplinary general education.

We acknowledge the Association of American Colleges for its Program Review and Educational Quality in the Major from which we adapted the structure of the recommendations. Our recommendations are organized in six major categories: goals, curriculum, teaching and learning, faculty, administration, and assessment. Each of the five categories includes a statement which sets the direction or highlights principles. Following the statement is a set of questions to help evaluators review documents, interview members of the institution or otherwise elicit indicators that the institution and/or general education interdisciplinary program are meeting the recommended criteria. These questions suggest multiple ways of achieving the principles embodied in the statement.

Category A: Goals

Interdisciplinary general education programs should have statements of goals which that explicitly address interdisciplinary or integrative features of the program. Although the goals may overlap the goals and outcomes of other strong general education programs, they will address distinctive aims of interdisciplinary programs. Effective, enduring interdisciplinary programs will have goals that are consistent with their own institution's mission and, as appropriate, consistent with pertinent state or regional educational objectives and guidelines for best practices nation-wide.
  1. An effective interdisciplinary general education program will have explicitly integrative goals which are communicated to all students, faculty, and staff.
    • What are the distinctive goals of the program?
    • Does the program aim explicitly at helping students to look at issues and problems from multiple perspectives?
    • Does the program aim explicitly at helping students to compare, contrast and integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, thereby gaining a more comprehensive view?
    • How were the goals determined? Were representatives of the constituent disciplines consulted in developing the interdisciplinary goals?
    • In what ways are all faculty and students made aware of their interdisciplinary dimensions? (For example, do the institutional catalog and the program informational bulletins include integrative goal statements? Are these given to all students, faculty, and staff?)
  2. The goals and outcomes of an effective interdisciplinary general education program will be consistent with the institution's goals and its mission.
    • In what ways are the distinctively integrative goals and outcomes of the program appropriate to the institution and to the program itself?
    • What evidence is there that the distinctive goals are feasible given available resources and personnel?
    • Are these goals stated in terms that permit judgments about the extent to which they are realized?
    • What evidence indicates that intended outcomes are being achieved?
    • What procedures are in place for collecting and analyzing evidence?
  3. An effective interdisciplinary general education program regularly reviews its goals, its curriculum, and the courses that it offers. In addition, the program has a process for regularly monitoring progress toward achieving integrative goals and outcomes, curriculum, and courses. (See Category F below.)
    • What process is used for reviewing interdisciplinary or integrative goals, courses, and curriculum structure?
    • How does the program monitor progress toward achieving these goals?
    • In what ways are program faculty involved in these processes? What occasions provide for collaborative reflection among faculty, students and administrators?
    • During the review process, do the units of the institution who have a stake in the content and/or staffing of the program provide adequate consultation?
    • What have been the results of these processes since the last program review?
    • What, if any, modifications have been made recently in program goals or in means of meeting these goals?
    • What documented improvements have resulted from these modifications?
    • Are there problems that have not been addressed? If so, what are they?

    Category B: Curriculum

    Interdisciplinary general education programs take into account the developments documented in strong general education programs, such as attention to intellectual skills , multiple modes of inquiry, the social and international context, self-knowledge and values, and integration of learning. Particularly important, for interdisciplinary programs, however, is having a plan for the development of the curriculum that carefully focuses on its integrative and coherent features.
  4. An effective interdisciplinary general education program shows coherence, although there are alternative ways of achieving it. The issue of coherence should consider at what stage undergraduate students take courses in the program, whether there are courses available for students at both the lower and upper divisions, and how students perceive coherence. It should also consider the relationship of individual disciplines to the interdisciplinary general education program, the relationship of general education and the major, and the integrative coherence of all elements within individual courses.
    • What documentation gives evidence that the curriculum plan is based on a well-defined intellectual agenda that addresses interdisciplinarity?
    • What creates coherence in the program? What evidence indicates it is being achieved?
    • If coherence is addressed through sets of common core courses, what are the courses? How are the core courses connected?
    • Are some courses organized around designated topics, themes, issues, ideas, problems, or questions?
    • In what ways does the program span the entire bachelor-level education, or does it focus on lower division courses? If it spans upper and lower division work, what is the relationship of beginning, middle-range, and capstone courses within the program?
    • Does the program provide for a sequence of interdisciplinary skills, from simple to complex?
    • If the interdisciplinary education program has other dimensions, such as a distribution of disciplinary courses, is there a clear and effective working relationship among the different components? What is that relationship? Are there opportunities to reflect on the relationship of the disciplines?
    • In what ways do the separate parts of the curricular structure cohere? What indications are there that the students perceive connections among separate courses?
    • What evidence indicates an effective working balance of breadth (exposure to multiple disciplines), depth (knowledge of pertinent disciplines), and synthesis (opportunities for integration)?
    • What are the participating disciplines and interdisciplinary fields? Is the spectrum of courses narrow or wide?
    • Are the number and extent of interdisciplinary experiences sufficient to achieve curricular goals?
    • How do other units of the institution help make connections with the interdisciplinary general education program themes and content?
    • How are pertinent links with the community incorporated into the curriculum?

    Category C: Teaching and Learning

    Although no unique pedagogies have been tied to effectiveness in interdisciplinary education, many of the approaches to pedagogy that have proven potent in general education are particularly useful in encouraging interdisciplinary and integrative learning. Students should learn to make connections across materials in their interdisciplinary general education courses, across courses in the program, and across courses more broadly, including courses in their major. Integration will be an ongoing process throughout the semester and the undergraduate career. Knowing the students and providing opportunities for student input and feedback will aid this process, as will both formal and informal assessment methods.
  5. Integration in interdisciplinary general education is a function of both how faculty teach and how students learn. In other words, it is the responsibility of both students and faculty. An effective interdisciplinary general education program provides strategies and opportunities for students to integrate their learning. Faculty will facilitate interdisciplinary integration through modeling and pedagogies of active learning as appropriate to their courses.
    • Where is the concept of interdisciplinarity explained -- in an introductory course and unit or elsewhere? Are students acquainted with the strengths and limitations of the interdisciplinary approach?
    • Do the faculty in their classroom teaching, assigned reading materials, and assigned learning activities focus explicitly on the process of integration?
    • What are the strategies for students to explicitly integrate their learning?
    • How do faculty model integration? Team-teaching can be one effective strategy. What other strategies have they developed?
    • How do faculty serve as mentors helping students to acquire strategies for integrative thinking?
    • What particular integrative approaches, such as systems theory, feminism, etc., if any, do faculty use?
    • How do students actively engage in connection-making strategies such as juxtaposing, comparing and contrasting disciplinary perspectives? Do they actively practice these activities in class and through assignments, rather than remaining as passive observers to the integrative thinking of faculty?
    • How do students explore the connections among their interdisciplinary courses and their major courses?
    • How do students make connections with their lives beyond school, now and in the future?
    • How do students use senior capstone seminars, essays/theses, research, and/or projects for synthesis?
  6. In the selection of pedagogies which that support integrative learning, an effective interdisciplinary general education program considers student developmental stages, student life, and the particular institutional culture. Some sample options are included in the following:
    • To what extent are faculty using pedagogies that are effective in developing students' capacities for integrative learning?
    • Do the faculty use alternative strategies such as integrative portfolios to promote connected learning?
    • Does the program have a living-learning component that helps students connect their general education with social, cultural, and ethical issues?
    • Does the program have collaborative projects or learning communities that support integration?
    • What other pedagogies have been effective in supporting integrative learning?
  7. Faculty and administrators evaluate learning and teaching in a systematic way on a regular basis in an effective interdisciplinary general education program.
    • How are interdisciplinary learning and teaching evaluated?
    • What criteria are used for learning assessment? Are they appropriate for integrative learning?
    • Are multiple learning assessment devices used, such as individual or group projects, presentations, self- and peer evaluations, papers or creation of works in other media, or tests?
    • What are the criteria used for teacher evaluation? Are they appropriate to teaching in an interdisciplinary program?
    • Does the standard institutional course evaluation form have the necessary flexibility to address distinctive features of interdisciplinary teaching/learning? Alternatively, does the interdisciplinary program have its own form or supplement or are faculty educated in making appropriate instruments?
    • Are multiple teaching assessment devices used, such as teaching dossiers, peer evaluations, student evaluations, and reviews of syllabi?
    • How are evaluations taken into account in making teaching assignments?
    • When weaknesses and problems are identified, what kind of support are faculty given to make improvements?

    Category D: Faculty

    All institutional faculty have some responsibility for general education, either through participating in the program or helping students make connections between courses in their majors and interdisciplinary general education. Faculty participating in interdisciplinary education programs, in particular, need support in areas of faculty development, promotion and tenure processes, and incentives for participation in the programs.
  8. Responsibility for overseeing interdisciplinary general education in an effective program is shared by faculty representatives from across the units of the institution.
    • Is there a committee composed of representatives from across the departments or colleges and library which oversees liaison with their units, faculty recruiting, curriculum, and policy?
    • Is there an ongoing, effective liaison between the interdisciplinary general education program and the departments whose faculty participate?
    • Are faculty from all participating units involved, or at least represented, in administrative decision making?
    • Is the library an important part of the process of consultation on curriculum development?
    • Does the leader keep the campus informed about pertinent recommendations of interdisciplinary, disciplinary, professional and educational groups regarding interdisciplinary general education?
  9. In an institution with interdisciplinary general education programs, departmental, college, and university policies and practices support faculty in engaging in interdisciplinary teaching, scholarship, and service.
    • Is the institutional culture supportive of interdisciplinary general education, so that chairs willingly allow their faculty to participate?
    • Does a general education director have leverage of some kind to obtain faculty participation? (Illustration: funding to reimburse departments for adjunct replacement.)
    • What opportunities and resources for collaboration are available to support the development of interdisciplinary programs? Examples include research projects, papers, presentations, team-teaching, and other team-building activities.
    • Does the institution manage its team-teaching plan(s)/option(s) so that it maximizes interdisciplinary and collaborative work without unduly increasing class size, while being financially sustainable for the university?
  10. In an effective interdisciplinary general education program, hiring procedures welcome faculty with teaching and research interests which cross traditional disciplinary lines.
    • Do position announcements inform applicants of the opportunity to teach interdisciplinary general education courses? Is it discussed in interviews with job candidates?
    • Do departments have some leverage in obtaining faculty lines if either the new hire or current members of the department will do interdisciplinary teaching?
  11. Procedures are in place to assure continued and substantial participation by full-time faculty, both tenured and non-tenured, in an effective interdisciplinary general education program.
    • What indications are there of a supportive institutional culture (see #9 above)? Are interdisciplinary studies treated as significant in the academic culture?
    • Is cross-listing of courses actively encouraged or tolerated?
    • Do the policies provide sufficient flexibility to allow for shifting faculty participants among interdisciplinary teams? What incentives encourage flexibility?
    • Are both junior and senior faculty involved in the interdisciplinary general education program?
    • Are faculty who teach part-time in the interdisciplinary general education program able to count it in-load, rather than overload?
    • Are there suitable options for faculty appointments? These might include joint appointments between a department and the interdisciplinary program or "fellows" in the interdisciplinary program (partial or full appointments to the interdisciplinary program for a specified length of time).
  12. To actively encourage faculty participation in an effective interdisciplinary general education program, there are opportunities for professional development in interdisciplinary and collaborative work.
    • What opportunities exist for faculty seminars and workshops, either during the academic year or during summers?
    • What opportunities do faculty have to acquire either externally or internally funded grants for faculty development, which might be used for interdisciplinary conferences, for example?
    • What opportunities do participating faculty have for mentoring, either informally or through formal, systematic arrangements?
    • Do teams have opportunities to formally reflect on their experiences?
    • If the institution has a teaching and learning center, how does it support the interdisciplinary general education program's needs?
  13. In institutions with an effective interdisciplinary general education program, promotion and tenure criteria support faculty in engaging in interdisciplinary teaching, scholarship, and service, and participating on interdisciplinary teams.
    • Do promotion and tenure forms explicitly invite mention of interdisciplinary activities?
    • Does the promotion and tenure assessment take into account the goals of the program within the institution, as well as implications of participation in interdisciplinary programs as distinct from what is expected within a particular discipline? For example, publication outlets, teaching loads and service opportunities may differ from what is expected within a single discipline.
    • When a faculty member participates in interdisciplinary general education outside his/her own unit, are there are procedures whereby voices from outside the faculty member's immediate unit (e.g. as representative of the other assignment in the interdisciplinary program) can have input into the process?
    • If any faculty appointments cross divisions, what assurances are in place that the arrangement recognizes, supports, and rewards the faculty member's status?
    • If a faculty appointment is between the interdisciplinary general education program and a disciplinary unit, what special provisions are in place to assure an equitable process?
  14. A system of rewards and incentives helps encourage faculty to participate in or develop interdisciplinary general education programs. These rewards may be of various kinds.
    • Are faculty in interdisciplinary general education programs invited to serve on important college or university committees as indications of the value these faculty have to the institution?
    • Do annual salary reviews recognize faculty participation in interdisciplinary general education programs?
    • Are processes and criteria for rewards and incentives for faculty and administrators in interdisciplinary general education programs comparable to those in other areas?

    Category E: Administration

    Effective administration of interdisciplinary general education programs is necessary to support faculty teaching and student learning. Effective administration includes a centralized leadership role as well as representation from among faculty full-time in the program and those whose appointments are shared with other departments. No one model is recommended, but a number of characteristics should be evident.
  15. In effective interdisciplinary general education responsibility is in the hands of an appropriate leader(s), rather than being dispersed across units whose primary loyalties are to their disciplines. (But also see #8 above.) These questions address the variety of administrative structures and practices:
    • Is there a director of general education, an associate dean of undergraduate studies, or other administrator who oversees interdisciplinary general education? To whom does this administrator report?
    • Is there a particular office location where it is managed?
    • How does the leader have a voice in key policy and budget decisions, either directly (e.g. through a position on a council of chairs or deans) or closely (e.g., reporting to a dean of undergraduate studies who sits on such a council)?
    • What are the typical responsibilities of such a leader? They might include budget allocation, policies and procedures, program evaluation, faculty recruitment, and relations with students, administrators, departments, and colleges, as well as chairing a cross-college committee (see above).
  16. In an institution with a well-supported interdisciplinary general education program, additional budgeting procedures assure that the program continues to receive stable and adequate support, in hard money rather than grant funds, even if times get tight.
    • Do resource allocations support the program's needs? Does the program have its own budget line? Does the program have access to funding allocation for classroom equipment and material, supplies, and new technologies?
    • To what extent is library support sufficient to support interdisciplinary curriculum? For example, what funding is available for collections? Does the institution provide access to collections elsewhere? Does the library offer instructional services to contribute positively to helping integrate the goals of interdisciplinary programs with general education goals?
    • How are faculty lines allocated for the interdisciplinary general education program? Does allocation of faculty lines take into account not only numbers of majors or student credit hour generation within a particular unit but also the needs of interdisciplinary general education?
    • How do procedures for budgeting and policies regarding faculty load acknowledge that team teaching, with the consultation involved, can require more work than individually taught courses?
    • What funds are set aside for faculty development?
    • If team-taught or interdisciplinary courses add revenue, are equitable means in place to share it?
  17. An effective interdisciplinary general education program maintains visibility and focus. Ongoing efforts are in place to keep faculty and students aware of the program and informed about its goals. In addition to institutional catalog descriptions, program brochures and recruitment materials, other possible options are addressed by the following:
    • Does a program newsletter reach members of the campus community?
    • How often does a column, regular or occasional, about interdisciplinary general education appear in the campus newspaper?
    • Do program course syllabi contain explicit mention of how the goals of a particular course relate to the goals of the program?
    • How are student advisors kept informed of the interdisciplinary education program, its goals, and its structure?

    Category F: Assessment

    An effective assessment program is an integral part of an interdisciplinary general education program, providing an intentional culture of evidence in which the general education program evolves. The evidence is grounded in a program mission that explicitly acknowledges its interdisciplinary foundations.

  18. An effective interdisciplinary general education program has an assessment plan that is integrated into the daily life of the program. Data should be collected systematically, both formatively and summatively.
    • Do the courses incorporate regular assessments as well as final tests of content and inquiry skills as appropriate?
    • How is students' integrative or interdisciplinary learning assessed across their general education program?
    • Does the institution carry out ongoing program assessment that includes student, faculty and administrative input?

  19. The assessment program considers how the learning goals of the general education program include appropriate interdisciplinary goals. It also considers how the specific learning outcomes include synthesis and integration.
    • How do the course assessments of student learning specifically address coherence, synthesis and integration?

  20. An effective model for assessment includes consideration of the relationships among student characteristics, the interdisciplinary curriculum, pedagogy, and intended as well as serendipitous learning outcomes, with feedback to improving curriculum.
    • In what ways are student characteristics, such as gender, race or age, standardized test scores, family background, and personal aspirations integrated with assessment of curriculum and pedagogical outcomes?
    • How are the outcomes of assessment used to revise curriculum and pedagogy, as useful?

  21. Effective assessment of programs and of student learning outcomes uses direct and indirect data from multiple sources. These sources may include surveys, standardized tests, focus groups, and actual student performances on authentic tasks. A focus on actual performance, and the development of techniques such as rubrics to measure that performance, is integral to the development of an effective general education assessment plan.
    • What mechanisms are in place to consider indirect and direct assessment data in relation to each other?
    • How are both qualitative and quantitative measures, as well as national and locally-designed approaches, used?
    • Are there defined responsibilities for gathering the data and making it available to program evaluators

  22. In an effective assessment program the data is made available to both stakeholders and impartial observers. Stakeholders meet frequently to examine data and consider strategic questions that will enhance teaching and learning. Impartial observers evaluate the assessment plan at least once a year.
    • In what ways does the institution provide financial and human resource support for feasible methods of assessment and analysis of the data so that stakeholders and others find the results worth the effort?

  23. Although an effective assessment plan undergoes continuing review, three- to five-year evaluations are conducted by impartial observers such as institutional program review committees or outside evaluators.
    • How is the assessment plan for interdisciplinary general education included in institution-wide program reviews?
    • Is the assessment of the interdisciplinary general education program incorporated into regional and specialized accreditation processes?


This report has been informed by ideas from the following. The literature covers theoretical grounding as well as examples of interdisciplinary programs.

Armstrong, Forest H. 1993. "Faculty Development through Interdisciplinarity." In Interdisciplinarity: Essays from the Literature, edited by William H. Newell. New York: The College Board, 171-180.

Blaisdell, Muriel L. "Academic Integration: Going Beyond Disciplinary Boundaries." In Preparing Faculty for the New Conceptions of Scholarship, edited by Laurie Richlin. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, no. 54. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, summer 1993, 57-69.

Boyer, Ernest L. College: The Undergraduate Experience in America. New York: Harper and Row, 1987.

Carfagna, Rosemarie. "Collaboration and Administration of the Core Curriculum." The Journal of General Education: JGE 46, no. 1 (1997): 56-68.

Casey, Beth A. "The Administration and Governance of Interdisciplinary Programs." In Interdisciplinary Studies Today, edited by Julie Thompson Klein and William G. Doty. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, no. 58. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, summer 1994, 53-67.

Chaffee, John. "Teaching Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum." In Critical Thinking: Educational Imperative, edited by Cynthia Barnes. New Directions for Community Colleges, no. 77. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, spring 1992, 25-35.

Checkoway, Marjorie, Ernest I. Nolan, and Richard Sax. "Collaborative Strategies for Integrating the Humanities and Teacher Preparation." Interdisciplinary Humanities 13, no. 2 (spring 1996): 55-65.

Crow, Gary M., Linda Levine, and Nancy Nager. "Are three Heads Better Than One? Reflections on Doing Collaborative Interdisciplinary Research." American Educational Research Journal 29, no. 4: (winter 1992): 737-53.

Davis, James R. Interdisciplinary Courses and Team Teaching: New Arrangements for Learning. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1995.

Dick, John A.R., and Robert M. Esch. "Dialogues Among Disciplines: A Plan for Faculty Discussions of Writing Across the Curriculum." College Composition and Communication 36, no. 2 (May 1985): 178-82.

Doherty, Austin, James Chenevert, Rhoda R. Miller, James L. Roth, and Leona C. Truchan. "Developing Intellectual Skills." In Handbook of the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Comprehensive Guide to Purposes, Structures, Practices, and Change, edited by Jerry G. Gaff, James L. Ratcliff, and Associates. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996, 170-189.

Downes, Peg, and William H. Newell. "Overcoming Disciplinary Boundaries." Liberal Education 80, no. 1 (winter 1994): 24-26.

Felton, Maureen, Vickie Hilgemann, and Louanne Whitton. "Building Connections by Opening Classroom Doors: An Interdisciplinary Internship Approach to Faculty Development." Paper presented at the International Conference on Teaching and Leadership Excellence, Austin, TX, 26-29 May 1996. ERIC, ED400870, microfiche.

Freeman, Joshua, Crystal Cash, Annette Yonke, Bonnie Roe, and Richard Foley. "A Longitudinal Primary Care Program in an Urban Public Medical School: Three Years of Experience." Academic Medicine 70, no. 1(January 1995): supplement S64-S68.

Fiscella, Joan B. and Stacey E. Kimmel, eds. Interdisciplinary Education: A Guide to Resources. New York: The College Board, 1999.

Gaff, Jerry. General Education: The Changing Agenda. The Academy in Transition Series. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities, 1999.

Gritzer, Glenn, and Mark Salmon. "Interdisciplinary Use of the Liberal Arts in Professional Art Programs." The Journal of General Education: JGE 41 (1992): 200-16.

Harnish, Dorothy, and Lynn A. Wild. "Mentoring Strategies for Faculty Development." Studies in Higher Education 19, no. 2 (1994): 191-201.

Haynes, Carolyn. Innovations in Interdisciplinary Teaching. Westport, CT: Oryx Press, 2002.

Howard, Rebecca Moore, David J. Hess, and Margaret Flanders Darby. "Hiring Across the Curriculum." Writing Program Administration 13, no. 3 (spring 1990): 27-36.

Klein, Julie Thompson. Interdisciplinary Education in K-12 and College: A Foundation for K-16 Dialogue. New York: The College Board, 2002.

Klein, Julie Thompson. Mapping Interdisciplinary Studies. The Academy in Transition Series. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges & Universities, 1999.

Klein, Julie Thompson and William G. Doty, eds. Interdisciplinary Studies Today. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, no. 58. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Summer 1994.

Klein, Julie Thompson and William H. Newell. "Advancing Interdisciplinary Studies." In Handbook of the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Comprehensive Guide to Purposes, Structures, Practices, and Change, edited by Jerry G. Gaff James L. Ratcliff, and Associates. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996, 393-415.

Landers, Mary F., Roberta Weaver, and Francine M. Tompkins. "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Higher Education: A Matter of Attitude." Action in Teacher Education 12, no. 2 (summer 1990): 25-30.

Lasiter, Doris Crowell. "Humanitas: Learning Communities That Transform Teachers' Professional Culture." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. New York, NY, 8-12 April 1996. ERIC, ED397017, microfiche.

Lasley, Thomas J., Patrick Palermo, Ellis Joseph, and Eugene R. August. "Creating Curricular Connections: Perspectives on Disciplinarity." Journal of Education 175, no. 3 (1993): 85-96.

Lynton, Ernest A. "Interdisciplinarity: Rationales and Criteria of Assessment." In Inter-Disciplinarity Revisited, edited by Lennart Levin and Ingemar Linds. Stockholm: OECD/CERI, 1985.

Maimon, Elaine P. "Teaching 'Across the Curriculum.' " In Handbook of the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Comprehensive Guide to Purposes, Structures, Practices, and Change, edited by Jerry G. Gaff James L. Ratcliff, and Associates. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996, 377-392.

Marsden, Michael T. "Politically Mainstreaming Interdisciplinary Programs: A Structure for Success." Issues in Integrative Studies 13 (1995): 59-77.

McDaniel, Elizabeth A. and Guy C. Colarulli. "Collaborative Teaching in the Face of Productivity Concerns: The Dispersed Team Model." Innovative Higher Education 22, no. 1 (1997): 19-36.

McGovern, Thomas V. "Navigating the Academic Department into the 21st Century." Metropolitan Universities 5, no. 3 (winter 1994): 33-40.

Moseley, Merritt. " Educating Faculty for Teaching in an Interdisciplinary General Education Sequence." The Journal of General Education: JGE 41 (1992): 8-17.

Musil, Caryn McTighe, ed. Students at the Center: Feminist Assessment. Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and National Women's Studies Association, 1992.

Newell, William H. "Interdisciplinary Curriculum Development." Issues in Integrative Studies 8 (1990): 69-86.

Newell, William H. "Academic Disciplines and Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Education: Lessons from the School of Interdisciplinary Studies at Miami University, Ohio." European Journal of Education 27, no. 3 (1992): 211-21.

Newell, William H. "Designing Interdisciplinary Courses." In Interdisciplinary Studies Today, edited by Julie Thompson Klein and William G. Doty. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, no. 58. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, summer 1994, 35-51.

Newell, William H. "Professionalizing Interdisciplinarity: Literature Review and Research Agenda." In Interdisciplinarity: Essays from the Literature, edited by William H. Newell. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1998, 529-563.

Program Review and Educational Quality in the Major: A Faculty Handbook. (Volume 3 of Liberal Learning and the Arts and Sciences Major). Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges, 1992.

Ratcliff, James L. "Quality and Coherence in General Education." Handbook of the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Comprehensive Guide to Purposes, Structures, Practices, and Change, edited by Jerry G. Gaff, James L. Ratcliff, and Associates. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1997, 141-169.

Robinson, Betty, and Robert M. Schaible. "Collaborative Teaching: Reaping the Benefits." College Teaching. 43, no. 2 (spring 1995): 57-59.

Schneider, Carol Geary and Robert Shoenberg. Contemporary Understandings of Liberal Education. . The Academy in Transition Series. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges & Universities, n.d.

Scott, Denise C., and Patricia A. Weeks. "Collaborative Staff Development." Innovative Higher Education 21, no. 2 (winter 1996): 101-11.

Seabury, Marcia Bundy, ed. Interdisciplinary General Education: Questioning Outside the Lines. New York: The College Board, 1999.

Seabury, Marcia Bundy and Karen Barrett. "Creating and Maintaining Team-Taught Interdisciplinary General Education." In Team Teaching and Learning in Adult Education, edited by Mary-Jane Eisen, Elizabeth J. Tisdell and Susan Imel. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 85. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.

Swaffar, Janet. "Institutional Mission and Academic Disciplines: Rethinking Accountability." The Journal of General Education: JGE 45, no. 1 (1996): 18-38.

Tigner, Steven S. "A New Bond: Humanities and Teacher Education." Liberal Education 80, no. 1 (winter 1994): 4-7.

Toner, John A., Patricia Miller, and Barry J. Gurland. "Conceptual, Theoretical, and Practical Approaches to the Development of Interdisciplinary Teams: A Transactional Model." Educational Gerontology 20, no. 1 (January-February 1994): 53-69

Werner, Alex, and Michael Berlin. "Developing an Interdisciplinary Approach? The Skilled Workforce Project." Bulletin of The John Rylands University Library of Manchester 77, no. 1 (1995): 49-56.

Member of the Task Force
Joan B. Fiscella, Bibliographer for Professional Studies and Associate Professor; University of Illinois at Chicago Library; Past President of the Association for Integrative Studies (1999-2001).

Cheryl R. Jacobsen, Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs/ Dean of Experiential Learning, Loras College (Dubuque, IA); Vice-President/President Elect of the Association for Integrative Studies.

Julie Thompson Klein, Professor, Department of Interdisciplinary Studies Program, College of Urban, Labor and Metropolitan Affairs, Wayne State University (Detroit Michigan); Past President of the Association for Integrative Studies.

Marcia Bundy Seabury, Professor of English, Hillyer College, University of Hartford (West Hartford, Connecticut); Vice-President, Development of the Association for Integrative Studies.

Michael J. Field, Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs, Shawnee State University (Portsmouth, Ohio); Past President of the Association for Integrative Studies.

Consultant: Don Stowe, Associate Professor and Director of the Bachelor of Arts in Interdisciplinary Studies Program, University of South Carolina; Vice-President, Relations of the Association for Integrative Studies.

October 28, 2000
Revision endorsed January 2003

Assessing Interdisciplinary Writing

Christopher R. Wolfe and Carolyn Haynes

Interdisciplinary Writing Assessment Profiles, Issues in Integrative Studies, No. 21 (2003)


AIS has been a pioneer in the development of assessment instruments for interdisciplinary studies. After unsuccessful efforts in the 1980s and 1990s to promote basic research in educational psychology on interdisciplinary outcomes, around 2000 AIS commissioned Chris Wolfe (a social science faculty member in the Western College Program at Miami University) to develop an assessment instrument for evaluating interdisciplinary capstone projects.
The idea was to use the evaluation of these culminating projects, not to grade the work of individual students, but to use their combined evaluation to assess the thoroughness and effectiveness of education in interdisciplinarity provided by a program as a whole. After a summer, Chris was joined by his colleague Carolyn Haynes whose expertise includes teaching writing. Together they designed and tested a rubric on senior projects of students in the interdisciplinary Western College Program and the University Honors Program (which Carolyn went on to direct).

While this instrument was thoroughly grounded in the latest professional literature on interdisciplinary studies, and its high inter-rater reliability and the face validity of its results speak to the credibility of the evidence provides, those highly desirable features come at some cost:
• Significant training and practice is required to apply the instrument accurately.
• It is designed for long capstone projects and not well suited to shorter writing projects.
• It is designed to assess program effectiveness and is inappropriate for use in assigning grades for individual students.
In short, it is a highly effective tool for the uses for which it was designed, but different tools are required for other uses.

To access a PDF of the prepublication version of the Wolfe/Haynes assessment instrument, click here (link to Interdisciplinary Writing Assessment Profiles).

To access volume 21 of Issues in Integrative Studies in which the Wolfe/Haynes assessment instrument was published, click here. (link to 2003 volume of IIS)

Veronica Boix Mansilla, Elizabeth Dawes Duraisingh, Christopher R. Wolfe and Carolyn Haynes

Targeted Assessment Rubric: An Empirically Grounded Rubric for Interdisciplinary Writing, Journal of Higher Education 80:3 (May/June 2009), 334-353


A few years after the first interdisciplinary assessment instrument was developed, Chris Wolfe and Haynes teamed up with Veronica Boix Mansilla and her colleague in Project Zero at Harvard, Elizabeth Dawes Duraisingh, to design a rubric to complement the earlier one. This rubric was intended for use in grading much shorter interdisciplinary writing assignments and designed to be much easier to use. Like the earlier rubric, it is grounded in the latest professional literature on interdisciplinarity.

To access the published article (excluding the rubric) via Project Muse, click here.

To access the published article (excluding the rubric) via Academic One File, click here.

For a PDF of the Boix Mansilla/ Duraisingh/Wolfe/Haynes rubric, click here. (PDF file attached)

[The links and rubric for this instrument are posted with the permission of the Journal of Higher Education.]

and Reports

Reprints of Articles and Chapters on Interdisciplinarity

Guide to Interdisciplinary Syllabus Preparation
(Association for Integrative Studies and Institute in Integrative Studies)

Resource Review: Resources for Interdisciplinary Studies (Julie Thompson Klein, from Change, March/April 2006. Reprinted with permission of the author with kind acknowledgment of Heldref Publications.)

Designing Interdisciplinary Courses (William H. Newell, from Interdisciplinary Studies Today, Copyright 1994, Jossey-Bass
This material is used by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc., For ordering, go to